What is an Intelligence Test?
This is an evaluation that checks the capacities of an individual, which are largely seen as signs that a person is intelligent, or the fact that an individual has special potentials, irrespective of what they have learned in the past.
Intelligence encompasses the capability to think, resolve problems, evaluate situations, and understand customs, social values, and norms. Two major categories of intelligence typically assessed by most intelligence assessments are:
- Verbal intelligence: It’s the ability to understand and solve language-based problems.
- Nonverbal intelligence: It’s the ability to comprehend and solve spatial and sequential problems.
Intelligence tests are conducted to understand better how well a student can be anticipated to perform academically and to evaluate a student’s learning needs. In the past, such tests have been used to rule out or substantiate the presence of learning disabilities and ascertain IQ to identify an intellectual disability.
Based on the type of intelligence test administered, important information can be gathered on how students handle problem-solving. When interpreted appropriately, such tests may also help teachers create suitable, specially designed educational strategies and instructions for the development of the individual educational plan (IEP).
There are different types of intelligence tests. IQ tests are one of the well-known forms of normed testing, which compare “normal” skill levels among students from the same age group. Some other types of intelligence tests are:
- Individual intelligence tests: These could include different forms of tasks like puzzles and game-like assignments, easel test books with pointing-response formats, and question and answer sessions. An example is the WISC test that includes symbol-, language-, and performance-based questions.
- Computerized assessments: They are ideal for reaction time tests. A computer can run tests, score them, and produce preliminary interpretations much faster than manual tests. For instance, computer-based Slosson Intelligence Test (CB-SIT) and computer-administered Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children found that compared to the traditional models of these tests, the ones run by computers gave feasible, valid, and acceptable results.
- Verbal intelligence tests: These tests are created to determine the extent to which the student has mastered the reading materials intended for the subject in line with his learning level. The responses to these test questions are typically expressed in terms of symbol cross, words, check, and circling or underlying the right response. An example is the Army Alpha Test on Intelligence.
- Nonverbal intelligence tests: These are used to evaluate students with limited English proficiency or language processing problems. Such tests usually include tasks designed to take out verbal intelligence from the assessment of a student’s reasoning abilities and isolate and evaluate a student’s analogical thinking, spatial reasoning, and problem-solving skills. An example is the CTONI (Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence).
Intelligence tests have created a lot of controversy about what types of mental abilities make up intelligence and if the results of such tests effectively signify these abilities, with disputes primarily focused on cultural bias in standardization processes and test construction. According to critics, intelligence tests favor students from wealthy backgrounds and discriminate against those belonging to the less privileged social, ethnic, or racial groups.